Most of us should be familiar with what the standard Tarot deck is and what the cards in a deck are. But just in case, tarot is typically seventy-eight cards; comprising of twenty-one trump cards, one Fool (this is referred to as the Major Arcana) and four suits of fourteen cards each (the Minor Arcana). These cards are then laid out in different ways and "read" for the purpose of divination.
So how to teach this complex system to young children is not a question to be approached lightly. People can make a lifetime of studying the Tarot and still not catch all the hidden symbols and cached meaning. But you can start a child to the idea of Tarot of working with them using your own deck.
Have them to look at the cards and tell you what they see. Children, being young and uncluttered, often times have an easier time seeing and understanding the archetypes that can be found in Tarot, especially the older Rider-Waite deck. This will, by the time they are old enough to know what deck is theirs, give them a solid understanding of the basics of this divinatory art.
The next topic that I would like to discuss is the I-Ching, or Book of Changes. I have not met many people that have heard of this ancient Chinese divinatory art. But I have had very good results with the system.
The system is comprised of eight trigrams that come together to make thirty-two hexagrams. These hexagrams are then looked up in the I-Ching and the proverb is given that is the fortune. I know it sounds more complicated then it really is
To find out what hexagrams you are using there are multiple methods. The easiest method I have found is the three coin method. In this method you throw three coins and count the number of heads and of tails. Heads count for three and tails for two. You add these three numbers and come up with the first of six lines.
The math to do so is as follows:
a 6 is an old yin (broken) lineWhere there are old (6 or 9) lines, the statements for those lines are read. Additionally, those lines should be converted into their opposites and the proverb for the new hexagram that results should be consulted as well.
a 7 is a young yang (solid) line
an 8 is a young yin (broken) line
a 9 is an old yang (solid) line
You can search on Google for the specific meanings of the different hexagrams, but I recommend buying a book that gives more detail into this method and into the other methods as well. In addition to the meanings of the hexagrams.
So good luck on your journey into teaching your children divination.